SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF CITIES AND FEATURES OF ITS TRANSFORMATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTANGIBLE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF CITIES OF THE CARPATHIAN REGION OF UKRAINE)
The article, based on a retrospective and analysis of theoretical research of Ukrainian and
foreign scientists, reveals the content and evolution of the concept of spatial structure of the city. The
model of urban space development was first formed in the late nineteenth century by Johann Heinrich
von Tunen. The processes of intensive urbanization of the early twentieth century led to the emergence
of social factors influencing the spatial structure of cities and the concept of social zoning. In 1939, the
American G. Hoyt proposed a sectoral projection of urban space, and in the second half of the twentieth
century. The idea of U. Eco's "architectural code" was gradually established. Among contemporaries, the
greatest interest is the search for the optimal structural model of formation and development of urban
space. This allows to include in the spatial organization of the city the concept of "freedom", which is
important for the average city dweller, who at its discretion gives priority to measures to ensure the envi
ronment, the organization of the transport system, engineering and industrial communications. This can
be realized with the help of the fivedimensional model of space proposed by M. Gabrel.
Nowadays, the spatial structure changes under the influence of both tangible and intangible factors.
However, if the material component of the city is formed in the process of interconnection of existing
stationary processes and communication links, the intangible — gives the existing processes a value
aspect, and at the same time acts as one of the elements of communication. If in the material sense com
munications are roads, means of communication, engineering and technological networks, etc., then
intangible communications are faith, and also associative connection of each inhabitant of the city, with
this city, its space, understanding of needs of development of city territory. Particularly high rates of
transformation of the spatial structure under the influence of intangibles are demonstrated by the cities
of the Carpathian region of Ukraine: IvanoFrankivsk, Lviv, Uzhhorod, Chernivtsi.
On the basis of theoretical analysis, as well as field surveys, it is established that the space of the mod
ern city is formed mainly under the influence of the intangible, as the determining factors for today are
the ideas of culture, spirituality, aesthetics.